2012年10月31日

ヤン・デフリースセミナー、経済学と歴史学について

ロンドンにあるInstitute of Historical Researchでのセミナーを実況したあとに、エジンバラ大の経済学者河村さんとTW上でやりとりをしました。それがとても勉強になったので記録を兼ねてトゥギャリました。
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Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

Now listing to 'Taxing the staff of life: the dutch bread tax, 1574-1855' by Jan de Vries at IHR

2012-10-27 01:24:06
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

Looking at the taxation of bread; will use the history of one commodity, a key commodity, to explore the long-term history.

2012-10-27 01:24:46
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

The Dutch taxed the bread and managed it in a rather peculiar way - hence some interest to historians as well as to economists.

2012-10-27 01:25:20
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

Tax introduced in 1574 - "Gemene Middelen". Tax imposed at the milling of grain to produce [wheat?]. A levy was originally rather modest.

2012-10-27 01:27:16
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

The rates doubled in 1583, and again in 1597. The crisis of 1596-7. [This led to the regulation of bread prices at regional levels?]

2012-10-27 01:28:53
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

Presents a table of the milling tax imposed upon wheat and rye between 1597-c.1700

2012-10-27 01:31:12
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

This gradual increase of tax on grain became a significant part of the price of bread during this period.

2012-10-27 01:32:16
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

Now goes on to situate the milling tax on the grains in the broader context of tax revenues in the Dutch Republic.

2012-10-27 01:33:27
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

ちょっとメモを取ってみています。上手く続けられるかな。。

2012-10-27 01:34:04
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

At 1578 the milling tax was 8% of the total revenue from the excise tax. By 1690, it became 1/4.

2012-10-27 01:34:55
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

Why? The consumption of beer - a big source of excise revenue - declined during the C17. So there was a hole to fill in. So the milling tax!

2012-10-27 01:36:36
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

Here is a key argument: the tax on grain was a useful tool for fiscal extraction; people had to buy bread even at a higher price.

2012-10-27 01:38:05
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

So in other words, the 'elasticity of demand' on bread was low.

2012-10-27 01:38:38
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

there was different rates imposed on different grains; wheat v. high; rye, half that, buckwheat そば粉 even lower rate!

2012-10-27 01:41:17
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

So the spk raises a quest: who consumed what as the tax on wheat increased over time? Were there class differentiations? But,

2012-10-27 01:42:34
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

But the data suggests that wheat was consumed twice as much as rye, a lower/cheaper grain.

2012-10-27 01:43:06
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

[The previous point draws on the data from the 1790s] The spek infers that the pattern was the same in the C17.]

2012-10-27 01:44:37
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

To back up, he draws on fragm evidence to indicate that the relative importance of bread revenue income increased despite the rising rate.

2012-10-27 01:49:17
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

This relative importance of grain tax - raising the bread price - drew critiques. Eg. Adam Smith in WN and others form l. C18.

2012-10-27 01:53:26
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

Dutch 'patriots' in the later C18 criticised the milling tax. Various disc. re. excise taxes followed.

2012-10-27 01:55:30
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

**But were there no riots or criticisms or local resistance much earlier? Had to wait ASmith to comment??**

2012-10-27 01:56:27
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

1812 Holland incorp into French empire. Now two tier milling tax - the central excise and the regional imposition.

2012-10-27 01:59:23
Koji Yamamoto 山本浩司 @Koji_hist

Speak moves to raise 2 Questions 1) Did the milling tax worsen to the 'uncompetitiveness' of Dutch economy?

2012-10-27 02:00:28
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