第二次世界大戦時に、米軍が東京空襲のために関東地方の大規模な地形模型を作成していた

第二次大戦時に米軍が関東地方を空襲するために大規模な地形模型を作成し、爆撃機搭乗員用のシミュレーション動画をハリウッドで撮影していた
47
永太郎(ながたろう) @Naga_Kyoto

東京への空襲に伴って地形模型を作製する技術が発達したという連ツイ。地理学と戦争の関係を考える上で興味深い。 twitter.com/dfedman/status…

2020-12-28 08:20:10
David Fedman @dfedman

1/ As @CaryKaracas and I have argued, maps were the lifeblood of the planning and prosecution of US Army Air Force raids against urban Japan. What I'm only now beginning to appreciate is how this campaign also spurred innovation in geospatial modeling. A few highlights: pic.twitter.com/HmPq3rFLc5

2020-12-28 02:07:07
月をみるもの @bamboo4031

米軍がつくった関東平野の三次元モデル。主な用途は、爆撃機搭乗員が行う空襲のシミュレーション。いまだと oculus か hololens 使うのか、、、と思ったけど、もはや爆撃機も無人か。。 twitter.com/dfedman/status…

2020-12-28 09:38:48
骨まで大洋ファンby革洋同@乳首スケスケマン @FanTaiyo

米軍が関東を空襲するために、巨大な関東地方の地形模型を作製し、それをハリウッドで飛行士用の訓練動画を撮影していたという。 1枚目の3Dマップのキャプションに「musashino nakajima」とあるので、武蔵野市の中島飛行機をターゲットにしていたことが分かる。 twitter.com/dfedman/status…

2020-12-28 09:30:11
David Fedman @dfedman

2/ No city was modeled more than Tokyo. These ranged from simple 1:62,400 scale models of the Kanto plain (left) to massive replicas (right), constructed in Hollywood film studios, used to film flight paths for training purposes. pic.twitter.com/ASWmNgNvBm

2020-12-28 02:07:09
David Fedman @dfedman

1/ As @CaryKaracas and I have argued, maps were the lifeblood of the planning and prosecution of US Army Air Force raids against urban Japan. What I'm only now beginning to appreciate is how this campaign also spurred innovation in geospatial modeling. A few highlights: pic.twitter.com/HmPq3rFLc5

2020-12-28 02:07:07
拡大
David Fedman @dfedman

2/ No city was modeled more than Tokyo. These ranged from simple 1:62,400 scale models of the Kanto plain (left) to massive replicas (right), constructed in Hollywood film studios, used to film flight paths for training purposes. pic.twitter.com/ASWmNgNvBm

2020-12-28 02:07:09
拡大
拡大
David Fedman @dfedman

3/ A lot of this was done with a multiplex projection system, pioneered by Bausch and Lomb, that enabled cartographers to painstakingly convert aerial photographs into 3D terrain models. pic.twitter.com/tDPbpQLHZs

2020-12-28 02:07:12
拡大
拡大
David Fedman @dfedman

4/ One of the larger collections of models were durable "rubber relief maps," often carried onboard warships, that were used for pre-mission briefings. Here, e.g., is a group of Naval officers, en route to the scene of a battle, studying models of Japanese held territories pic.twitter.com/IxTqeMkhLo

2020-12-28 02:07:13
拡大
David Fedman @dfedman

5/ Of course, these all pale in comparison to the reproduction of Tokyo built for target practice at the Midland Bombing School in Texas youtube.com/watch?v=NO3g66…

2020-12-28 02:07:13
拡大
David Fedman @dfedman

6/ One might also argue that the model Japanese village, erected and burned down at the Dugway Proving Ground as part of a series of experiments into refining incendiary bombs, also fits into this project. pic.twitter.com/EgLEwqEoK8

2020-12-28 02:07:14
拡大
David Fedman @dfedman

7/ Cary and I touch on these 3D maps in an article here: japanairraids.org/wp-content/upl… Images of these and other models (about a dozen so far) will soon be uploaded to JapanAirRaids.org, which is back online after a few months of web maintenance.

2020-12-28 02:07:14
David Fedman @dfedman

@K_Chiyozawa @FanTaiyo In case you are interested, we are also finishing a documentary on the politics of memory of the firebombing of Tokyo. Here's a trailer: vimeo.com/344006883

2020-12-28 09:16:18
骨まで大洋ファンby革洋同@乳首スケスケマン @FanTaiyo

@chizulabo この連ツイが地図マニア的にも大変興味深いのですが、日本の地図業界では、みなさまご存じのような話なのでしょうか? twitter.com/dfedman/status…

2020-12-28 03:39:46
ちずらぼ @chizulabo

@FanTaiyo ありがとうございます。恥ずかしながら3Dモデルの話は知りませんでした。日本の地図会社の多くは戦後AMSから本格的な航空写真測量を教えてもらった経緯がありますが、あくまでも地図作成のプロセスとしてであり、こうした本格的な3Dモデルの話は想像も及びませんでした。

2020-12-28 09:03:36
永太郎(ながたろう) @Naga_Kyoto

こちらの論文に詳しく書かれている 論文紹介:A cartographic fade to black(WWⅡでの米軍の地図作成について) : ながたろぐ blog.livedoor.jp/naga_taro/arch… twitter.com/Naga_Kyoto/sta…

2020-12-28 08:22:04
永太郎(ながたろう)@『色分け日本地図』発売中! @Naga_Kyoto

2012年のJournal of Historical Geography Best Paper Prizeを受賞した論文。第二次世界大戦中にアメリカ政府が作成した空襲用の地図に関して。 David Fedmana, Cary Karacas. A cartographic fade to black: mapping the destruction of urban Japan during World War II doi.org/10.1016/j.jhg.… pic.twitter.com/NKX11tqx3H

2020-07-28 07:55:12

第二次世界大戦中、アメリカの地質学者達は富士山等の火山の内部に爆弾を投下することの有効性について議論していた。

David Fedman @dfedman

TIL American geologists debated the efficacy of dropping bombs inside Japanese volcanoes during WWII. The idea was to burst the "plug" of Mt. Fuji or Mt. Vesuvius so as to induce an eruption. Or, as one Aussie put it, "to persuade mother earth to kick up against the axis." pic.twitter.com/4OHi6CW7DP

2020-12-29 01:57:28
拡大
拡大
拡大

個人的な関心点についてやり取りさせていただいたのであわせて記録として(私の英語がデタラメなのは笑って見逃してください)

骨まで大洋ファンby革洋同@乳首スケスケマン @FanTaiyo

@dfedman hello In 1954, Japanese Ministry of Construction bureaucrats used relief maps made by the U.S. military as explanatory materials for highway planning in order to introduce American funds for highway construction. Is this what the relief map you presented is all about? pic.twitter.com/7K0w6hG5zP

2020-12-28 03:24:38
拡大
拡大
David Fedman @dfedman

@FanTaiyo Interesting question. I can't answer with confidence, but my sense is that the models used in 1954 would've been different than these wartime models. The US military did a lot of aerial mapping during the occupation and those would likely have been used for highway constr models.

2020-12-28 03:45:35
David Fedman @dfedman

@FanTaiyo Sure. I'll keep my eyes out for additional information on this topic. Perhaps Cary, my collaborator, has a clearer sense. The U.S. National Archives, Geography Div. (in Maryland) has a lot of material about this and I suspect that's where you'd find your answer.

2020-12-28 04:08:55
骨まで大洋ファンby革洋同@乳首スケスケマン @FanTaiyo

@dfedman Thank you again. I am interested in the reclamation of waterways in Tokyo related to post-war reconstruction. After the war, the rubble and debris from the air raids were buried in the waterways and the land was sold off. pic.twitter.com/NXYziZXfHF

2020-12-28 08:54:02
拡大
拡大
拡大
骨まで大洋ファンby革洋同@乳首スケスケマン @FanTaiyo

@dfedman The bridge that was buried at that time, due to construction, made its appearance this year for the first time in 70 years. However, it was hardly talked about, including by experts. pic.twitter.com/VorUjCvDyF

2020-12-28 08:58:21
拡大
拡大
拡大
David Fedman @dfedman

@FanTaiyo This is a great research topic. I'm currently writing a book chapter about the 東京空襲を記録する会 and many of the founding members talk about how quickly ruins and traces of the bombing disappeared from the cityscape. All the more reason for a permanent museum/memorial!

2020-12-28 09:01:50